Volume 2 (1) 2021
Professional Art Education Volume 2 (1) 2021 Scientic Journal
The purpose of the article is to consider the role of copyright textures in the design of modern
clothes; analyze the collections of students of the department of Design of the H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv
National Pedagogical University from the point of view of the development of textured surface and use
in the creation of a suit.
Methods & methodology. We used such research methods as subject-analytical for studying
literary and illustrative sources; a terminological method for an unambiguous understanding of
the essential features of design; psychological method for verbal determination of the nature of the
visual sensation from the tissue surface; to reveal the dependence of expressive means when creating
Scientic novelty is determined by the need to develop new versions of copyright textures
and use them in the of modern clothing also due to the objective public need for multifunctional and
specic expressive clothing that would satisfy the utilitarian and aesthetic needs of a person.
Results. The theme of the surface of the material in the design of clothing is very relevant and
requires constant innovative development to obtain new textural solutions. In modern design, the
textures actively inuences the stale of shaping the plastic, composition and the silhouette of the suit
and also focuses on certain parts of the product. The role of texture in the implementation of the
function of the suit and its inuence on the person’s visual perception is considered studied techniques
and ways to create a textured surface. In one model, you can combine various textured surfaces. This
makes it possible to achieve a variety of solutions in creating a costume. To create textured surfaces,
various manufacturing techniques are used, namely: the use of contrasting and nuanced combinations
of textures; the use of traditional embroidery in combination with patchwork; quilting; embroidery;
perforation; stitches and sewing elements; tucks and formation of folds; stretching, friction, stamping;
drawing volumetric drawings and a photogram; saturation of the texture with volumetric additions
(pile, knots, boucle, stones, brushes, plaits). Much attention is paid to the analysis of the works of
students of the design department, focused on innovative development of textured surfaces and use
when creating collections.
Conclusions and practical signicance. Analysis of ways to create copyright invoices based on
the work of students of the Department of Design of H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical
University allows deeper rethinking of the inuence of textured surfaces for the realization of design
ideas, namely: the expressiveness of the image and compositional decision, the degree of bulkiness of
clothing and mass density.
Key words: texture, design, costume, material, clothing, decor.
DOI 10.34142/27091805.2021.2.01.05
© larysa Hryhorova
Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Assistant
Professor of the Department of Design,
Member of the National Union of Designers
of Ukraine, H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National
Pedagogical University
Kharkiv, Ukraine
email: laragrig73@gmail.com
© Л. Григорова
УДК 378.22:78.087.68
DOI 10.34142/27091805.2021.2.01.06
© Oksana Vasilyeva
Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Docent of the
Department of Theory and Methodology of Artistic
Education and Vokal-choral Training of the Teacher
of H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical
Kharkiv, Ukraine
email: oksana.vasileva1965@gmail.com
© Alla Sokolova
Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor of the
Department of Theory and Methods of Art Education and
Vokal-choral Training of the Teacher of H.S. Skovoroda
Kharkiv National Pedagogical University
Kharkiv, Ukraine
email: a.sokolova.a2017@gmail.com
The purpose of the article is to determine the specics of teaching conducting and choral discipline in the
process of the professional training of future music art teachers; to identify the main directions of vocal and choral
work at school choral singing as a type of collective musical activity on music lessons and ruling school choirs and
vocal ensembles in extracurricular time). The study characterizes the peculiarities of teaching such basic disciplines
of the conductor-choir cycle as Choral Conducting, Choral Arrangement, Choral Studies, Choral Class, Workshop on
«Workshop of working with a choir». The main tasks of the disciplines are outlined as follows: mastery of conducting
and choral knowledge, development of professional musical abilities, formation of teacher-choirmaster skills. The
study of the problem proved the need to focus the content of conducting and choral disciplines on the peculiarities
of the music art teacher activities. These should include learning song repertoire for children’s choirs; mastering
arranging skills for children’s singing groups of different age categories; acquiring the knowledge of the development
and protection of children’s voice, as well as methods of vocal and choral work with children in secondary education.
Key words: conducting and choral disciplines, music art teacher, choral conducting, choral class, workshop
with choir, choral studies, choral arrangement.
Problem statement and its connection
with important scientic or practical tasks. The
preparation of a higher qualication musician is
considered to be a rather complicated, multifaceted
and multi-stage process. This is especially true for
a music art teacher profession characterized by
versatility, complexity and creativeness. As experience
shows, graduates of music and pedagogical faculties
do not only teach the subjects «Musical art», «Arts»
but work as leaders of children’s school choirs and
ensembles. Besides, the new specialization «Teacher
of choral conducting disciplines» provides students,
who learn to be music art teachers, with a broader
range of professional abilities. And this will allow
delivering subjects of choral conducting cycle in
higher and secondary special educational institutions.
Analysis of basic research and publications.
The generalization of scientic works on the chosen
topic of the article allows identifying the main
directions of development of the problem of teaching
conducting and choral disciplines in the training
of future Music Art teachers. The theoretical and
methodological foundations of professional training
in the eld of music pedagogy were developed by
A. Kozyr (2008), O. Oleksyuk (2013), G. Padalka (2008),
O. Rudnytska (2005), O. Shcholokova (2016).
Historical aspects of conducting and choral
pedagogy were covered by O. Vasilieva (2015).
A. Sokolova (2012), T. Smirnova (2004), L. Yaroshevska
(2017). The principles of vocal and choral training
of students of music and pedagogical faculties and
methods of teaching in the choir class were studied
by A. Bolganrsky (2008), L. Baida (1997), E. Karpenko
(2001).Works by O. Vasylievа (2019), J. Volodchenko
(2000), V. Doronyuk (2004), and P. Zabolotny (2007)
were devoted to the development of methods for
teaching choral conducting. Methodical issues of
vocal and choral work with children’s choir were
considered by V. Doronyuk (2008), S. Svitailo (2016),
E. Plyushchyk (2010), I. Topchieva (2013), I. Gavran
© O. Vasilyeva & A.Sokolova
Professional Art Education
© O.Васильєва & A. Соколова
Volume 2 (1) 2021
Professional Art Education Volume 2 (1) 2021 Scientic Journal
(2021), L. Yatlo (2008).
The article goals and objectives formulation.
The purpose of the article is to identify the specics
of teaching conducting and choral disciplines in the
training of future Music Art teachers.
Рresenting the main material. One of the main
directions of a future Musical Art teacher’s work is
the organization of vocal and choral performance of
student’s youth in establishments of comprehensive
secondary school.
The analysis of the works of A.Bulgarsky,
I.Zelenetska, A.Kozyr, L.Khlebnika proves that the
vocal-choral activity of a Music Art teacher has its
specic features caused by the purpose of general
art education. As L. Masol claims in the «Concept of
General Art Education», its main purpose is to educate
students to value the reality and art, the development
of consciousness, emotional and sensuous sphere
of personality and its spiritual formation while
perceiving and interpreting works of art and
participating in practical art activities» (Masol, 2004,
c. 3).
Students’ choral performance in secondary
schools is carried out in several directions. At music
lessons, choral singing is one of the types of group
musical activity. In extracurricular activities, it exists
as the work of school singing groups (choirs, vocal
ensembles, song studios).
These features determine the specics of
conducting and choral training of Music Art teachers
and encourages the generalization of methods of its
teaching. Achieving the required level of competence
in this area is possible through mastering each
of the subjects of the conductor-choir cycle and
understanding their relationship.
Choral conducting is one of the most
sophisticated kinds of performance art directed to
training and educating multiskilled professionals
prepared for careers in pedagogy and performance
both theoretically and practically.
The purpose of the course «Choral conducting»
is to provide future Music Art teachers and leaders
of children’s choirs with fundamental conducting
training, raise a viable personality able to organize,
lead creatively, conduct a choir artistically convincing,
and self-develop constantly.
The course objectives are in the active
comprehension of the academic process as an
important means of enhancing personal being, self-
realization and self-organization of a personality;
acquiring choral conducting knowledge (choral
pieces texts, methods and techniques of a choral
piece conducting, ways of self-learning choral
scores etc.); development of a teacher-conductor’s
professional abilities and skills (verbal and nonverbal
communication with choral class, musical talents,
performance reliability, artistry); nurturing exibility
and speed of mental and emotional reactions; art
activity; ability of self-development, self-control
and self-organization; mastering methodological
fundamentals of choral work; accumulating repertoire
for further choral work.
Pedagogical principles: systemacity, self-
organization, socialization, cultural correspondence
and humanization, personal orientation,
individualization, dialogue interaction, intellectual
and creative development. Subject principles: the
principle of freedom, graphic clarity and movements
eciency, warning, sound choral articulation, melos,
artistic expediency.
The close connection of «Choral Conducting»
with social, psycho-pedagogical, musical-theoretical,
performance disciplines and subjects of the choral
conducting cycle. Integration of «Choral Conducting»
content promotes to shape the productive thinking
of students learning to be conductors and teachers;
stimulates to develop the depth, completeness and
integrity of their competencies.
Modern teaching of choral conducting is
not possible without extensive implementation
of various teaching methods: problem methods
(problem-search tasks; determination of features
of conducting technique, performance), method of
mental intonation, method of comparison, method of
creative project, etc. The main task in the study of the
discipline «Choral Conducting» is to prepare future
Music Art teachers for practical vocal and choral
work in the classroom with schoolchildren. To ensure
this form of work, songs from the school repertoire
must be included into the very rst classes on choral
conducting. Such work should involve obtaining
skills of educational and song material presentation
(creation of introductory conversations, computer
presentations), analysis of intonation, rhythmic, a
school song diction diculties, choice of means to
overcome the latter, mastering conduction techniques
of choral singing.
In the career of the music teacher and the head
of the children’s choir, the ability to play choral scores
has a signicant role. It contributes to the success of
their work and problem solutions encountered in
choral practice. The importance of reading choral
scores skills was revealed by prominent choral art
personality and teacher M. M. Danilin. He emphasized:
«As a conductor plays the score, so will the choir sing
under his direction».
However, in the practice of training Music Art
teachers, reading choral scores as a separate discipline
is not provided by the curriculum. Therefore, such
work should be done more carefully within the
framework of the discipline «Choral Conducting» and
focus on the skills of reading scores from a sheet and
transposition. In our opinion, mastering these skills
allows the future Music Art teacher to conduct vocal
and choral work with children of different school
ages effectively and exibly. Teaching conducting and
choral disciplines in higher pedagogical educational
institutions is undoubtedly inuenced by art
faculties’ students’ educational background. Since
the specialty of Secondary Education (Music Art) is
gained by students with different levels of musical
training (graduates of secondary schools, music
and pedagogical schools), creating an individual
educational trajectory of each of them should be
based on individual semester work plans according
to curriculum, syllabus and students’ characteristics.
Besides it should be gradual, systematic, and
student-focused to ensure the multifaceted creative
personality development.
Тhe purpose of the course «Choral arrangement»
is to provide music and pedagogical department
students of pedagogical institutes and universities
with essential knowledge and skills to make
transpositions of choral, solo, instrumental musical
pieces for different choir pieces. It is implemented
through solutions of such tasks as forming a
system of compositional knowledge; nding the
best arrangement in accordance with artistic and
gurative tasks; working out your own individual
style in arranging pieces for any choir staff; getting
acquainted with arrangements made by prominent
masters of choral art.
While studying the course «Choral Arrangement»
future Music Art teachers should learn about possible
problems when changing author’s original. Possible
transformation of an original composer’s text by the
author of the arrangement which is a transposition
of the main theme material into another compared
to the original coral score register; changes in voice
of supporting parties; a transposition of main theme
material from one choral party to another (cases of
transposition for a choir without accompaniment of
instrumental compositions with a melody of a wide
range); changing the original tone of the composition
for a more comfortable range, tessitura and
dynamics; changing the main party accompaniment
in the transposition of vocal compositions with
accompaniment for a choir or a cappella.
The teacher of choral arrangement should
introduce students to the characteristic of the choral
arrangement main varieties as a result of the choral
transposition compared to the original source:
transposition from one choir to another (for example,
from a homogeneous choir to a mixed one and vice
versa), transposition of compositions written for
a voice with accompaniment (romance, song) for
various choirs’ staff, transposition of instrumental
compositions for choral performance.
Considering the eld of a Music Art teacher’s
activity, the content of the course «Choral
Arrangement» should focus on mastering the skills of
creating scores for children’s choirs of different age
groups. It should include transpositions for children’s
starting choirs; choral pieces transposition for more
experienced choirs; transposition for senior students’
choirs (homogeneous, incomplete, mixed); choral
pieces transposition for complete mixed choirs;
Instrumental pieces transposition for choirs; free
arrangements of folk songs.
One of the central disciplines of conducting and
choral training of a Music Art teacher is «Choral class»
and «Workshop of working with a choir». The choral
class is a creative laboratory where students are given
opportunities to learn conditions and features of a
choir organization and work. Acting both as a choral
singer and a conductor and observing the choral
leader’s methods of work facilitate their mastering
certain choral techniques.
The role of the choral class course as one of the
most important subjects in the professional training
of a future choral conducting teacher is in blending
theory and practice in the choral class; on the basis
of their knowledge of musical theory and vocal and
choral disciplines students master professional skills,
necessary for their future career activities.
Analysis of choral class syllabi allows setting
such course objectives as moral and artistic education
of students via the direct introduction to choral
compositions of various epochs, styles, genres;
gaining vocal and choral skills; obtaining skills of
working with a choir, accumulating choral repertoire.
Solving the outlined tasks allows a student not only to
acquire the ability to sing in a choir, but also helps to
consolidate their knowledge of a conductor’s practical
The knowledge, skills and abilities acquired
in the choir class should become the basis for the
formation of the necessary skills in future Music Art
teachers to work with the educational choir in the
course «Workshop on working with the choir». The
value of the course is that in the process of studying this
subject the student applies practically their knowledge
and skills in the work and choir conducting, obtained
in conducting, choral studies, and choir class. It is in
the process of studying this subject that the student
acquires professional skills in working with the choir
and the ability to choose techniques and methods of
learning choral pieces.
The head of the course educational choir should
select the choral repertoire for the students’ practical
work, taking into account the specics of Music Art
teachers’ activity. It is recommended to choose bright,
diverse choral works that students will be able to use
in their further choral practice. When organizing
© O.Vasilyeva & A.Sokolova
Professional Art Education
the educational process, planning rehearsals it is
necessary to take into account the technical skills
of the choir, the complexity of choral works and
individual abilities of students who will work with
the choir.
While preparing students for practical work
with the choir, the work of a teacher of conducting
is of great importance. They should examine the
knowledge of the parts and scores of a choral piece,
outline its main performance diculties, guide a
student to create their own interpretation of the piece
and make a plan for learning it.
While preparing a student to work with the
students’ choir, it is necessary to attract students’
attention to the features of the main stages of work on
the choral piece. An important step in working with
a school choir on a choral song is its presentation.
It should include a talk about the piece, a song
performance (singing to your own accompaniment or
listening to a recording). It is advisable for a modern
music teacher to use computer technology while
presenting a choral piece. PowerPoint presentations
with animation and different performances of the
piece for comparison could be created.
While planning the technical stage of work on
the piece, a student learns to divide it into phrases,
sentences, periods. This allows them to comprehend
clearly its musical form and make an effective plan to
work on it. It is necessary to determine the sequence of
work with choral parts and groups, their alternation
and combination in partial and general choral sound.
At the technical stage the main elements of choral
technique such as the development of singing breath,
sound, intonation, rhythm, diction and the nature of
sound are mastered.
Mastering the choral piece continues at the
artistic stage. To achieve maximum sound quality a
variety of sound colors are searched; agogic changes,
delays, acceleration, rubato, fermatas are worked
out; a musical form of a choral piece is created
through the implementation of the climactic plan and
phrasing. It is at this time that the maximum mutual
understanding and interaction between the choir and
the conductor are achieved.
The main task of the course is to teach students
the basic methods of working on a choral piece. At the
presentation stage verbal (a talk, comments) and visual
(audio, video recording of the presentation) teaching
methods are used. During the technical mastering of
a choral piece, it is expedient to use solfeggio, singing
in syllables, transposition, singing at different tempos
and out of tempo, melody recitation. A future choir
conductor working on the piece is expected to learn
using a working conductor’s gesture, timing, showing
their own voice, playing the piano, oral explanation of
the most dicult episodes.
«Choral studies» is one of the main subjects in
choral conducting cycle focusing on blending theory
and practice of choral performance. Considering
the specics of future Music Art teachers training
while teaching choral studies, in our opinion, it is
necessary to emphasize the historical and theoretical
foundations of children’s choral performance and
Revealing the importance of choral singing as an
effective method of educating the younger generation,
it should be highlighted that the involvement of
students in choral art contributes to the cultural
development of a personality and their socialization
(Косинська, 2018).
The range of choral studies topics should cover
the historical aspects of national and international
theory and practice of vocal and choral work with
children, as well as identify the main trends of
children’s choral performance and creativity.
Determining the specics of children’s choirs
will help future Music Art teachers to organize school
choirs of different ages (preparatory, junior, middle,
senior, youth) and understand their differences in
ranges, registers, timbres.
For further vocal and choral work with children,
a teacher-leader of a school choir needs knowledge
about the structure of the child’s vocal apparatus, its
physiological differences at a certain age, as well as the
psychological characteristics of students of different
ages. The course «Choral studies» for students
majoring in Secondary Education (Music) should
include the problems of vocal and choral technique in
children’s choir. An important aspect of studying the
discipline «Choral studies» is the methodological basis
of work in a children’s choir.
Future Music Art teachers are considered
to master the methods of vocal and choral work
with children of different ages, learn to choose
the appropriate choral repertoire for a particular
age group. In practical classes on «Choral studies»
modeling a choral piece rehearsal is vital in order to
master the methods of working with singing groups
Conclusions. Thus, based on the analysis of
modern national theory and practice of future Music
Art teachers professional training, it can be claimed
that the method of teaching conducting and choral
disciplines has specic features and is shaped by the
content of practical activities of Music Art teachers in
secondary schools.
Prospects for further research. Prospects for
further research are to identify promising approaches
and effective methods of conducting and choral
training of future Music Art teachers.
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© O.Васильєва & A. Соколова
Volume 2 (1) 2021
Professional Art Education Volume 2 (1) 2021 Scientic JournalProfessional Art Education
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Дата надходження рукопису 03.04.2021
DOI 10.34142/27091805.2021.2.01.06
Мета статті полягає у виявленні специфіки викладання диригентсько-хорових дисциплін в про-
цесі фахової підготовці майбутніх вчителів музичного мистецтва з огляду на основні напрями вокаль-
но-хорової роботи вчителя музичного мистецтва: хоровий спів як вид колективної музичної діяльності
на уроках музики та керування шкільними хорами, вокальними ансамблями у позаурочний час.
Методологія. Методологічну основу дослідження становлять системно-діяльнісний, культуроло-
гічний, праксеологічний, аксіологічний підходи та філософський, термінологічний, когнітивний прин-
ципи. Використано загальнонаукові (аналіз, синтез, систематизація, узагальнення, порівняння, кла-
сифікація), емпіричні, прогностичні методи дослідження.
Наукова новизна. У дослідженні схарактеризовано особливості викладання таких основних
дисципліни диригентсько-хорового циклу, як: «Хорове диригування», «Хорове аранжування», «Хорозна-
вство», «Хоровий клас» та «Практикум роботи з хором». Розкрито мету предмету «Хорове диригування»,
яка полягає у наданні майбутньому вчителеві музичного мистецтва як керівнику дитячого шкільного
хору базової диригентської підготовки. Окреслено основні завдання дисципліни: оволодіння диригент-
сько-хоровими знаннями, розвиток професійних здібностей, формування умінь вчителя-хормейстера.
У результаті дослідження розкрито специфіку змісту курсу «Хорове аранжування», який слід зосе-
редити на оволодінні навичками створення партитур для дитячих хорів різних вікових категорій: почи-
наючих дитячих хорових колективів, розвинутих хорових дитячих колективів, хорів старшокласників
(однорідних, неповних мішаних). Оцінено роль курсу «Хоровий клас», в процесі якого студенти на ос-
нові отриманих знань з музично-теоретичних і вокально-хорових дисциплін удосконалюють професій-
ні навички, необхідні для майбутньої практичної вчителя музичного мистецтва. Доведена необхідність
введення у структуру підготовки вчителя музичного мистецтва курсу «Практикум роботи з хором», де
здобувачі на практиці засвоюють вміння роботи із шкільним хором. Встановлено роль керівника хоро-
вого класу та викладача з хорового диригування у підготовці до ефективної роботи з хором. Розглянуто
коло тем з «Хорознавства», які мають охоплювати історичні аспекти вітчизняної та зарубіжної теорії і
практики вокально-хорової роботи з дітьми, висвітлювати основні напрями дитячого хорового викона-
вства і творчості, знайомити з особливостями розвитку голосового апарату дітей різного віку, надавати
знання з охорони дитячого голосу, виявляти специфіку вокально-хорової роботи з дитячими хоровими
Висновки. У ході дослідження встановлено, що методика викладання диригентсько хорових дис-
циплін має специфічні особливості і обумовлена змістом практичної діяльності педагога-музиканта у
загальноосвітніх закладах середньої освіти.
Ключові слова: диригентсько-хорові дисципліни, вчитель музичного мистецтва, хорове диригу-
вання, хоровий клас, практикум роботи з хором, хорознавство, хорове аранжування.
© Васильєва Оксана Вікторівна
кандидат педагогічних наук, доцент кафедри
теорії і методики мистецької освіти та вокаль-
но-хорової підготовки вчителя Харківсько-
го національного педагогічного університету
імені Г.С. Сковороди
Харків, Україна
email: oksana.vasileva1965@gmail.com
© Соколова Алла Вікторівна
доктор педагогічних наук, професор кафедри
теорії і методики мистецької освіти та вокаль-
но-хорової підготовки вчителя Харківсько-
го національного педагогічного університету
імені Г.С. Сковороди
Харків, Україна
email: a.sokolova.a2017@gmail.com
© O. Vasilyeva & A.Sokolova
© O.Васильєва & A. Соколова
Volume 2 (1) 2021
Professional Art Education Volume 2 (1) 2021 Scientic JournalProfessional Art Education